- Name : Shaheed Bhagat Singh
- Date of Birth : Sep 28, 1907
- Passed Away On : Mar 23, 1931
- Religion : Sikh
- Death Place : Banga
- Address : Lahore
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NAME: Bhagat Singh
DATE OF BIRTH: 28 September 1907
PASSED AWAY ON: 23 March1931
PLACE OF BIRTH: Banga, Jaranwala Tehsil, Lyallpur district, Punjab, British India
DEATH PLACE: Lahore, Punjab, British India
OCCUPATION: Indian Independence Revolutionary
Bhagat Singh was an Indian revolutionary who played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
Bhagat Singh was born into a Jat Sikh family which was involved in revolutionary activities against the British rule in India. His father was Kishan Singh and mother was Vidyavati. Coincidently, his father and two uncles, Ajit Singh and Swaran Singh were released from jail when he was born.
His family was politically active and his grandfather, Arjun Singh was a follower of Swami Dayananda Saraswati’s Hindu reformist movement; Arya Samaj. Consequently, Bhagat Singh too was considerably influenced by Arya Samaj.
Also, his father and uncles were members of the Ghadar Party, led by Kartar Singh Sarabha and Har Dayal. His uncle, Ajit Singh was forced into exile due to pending court cases against him. On the other hand his second uncle Swaran Singh died at home in Lahore in the year 1910 following his release from jail.
His grandfather did not approve of the Khalsa High School officials' loyalty towards the British government and therefore enrolled Bhagat Singh in the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic High School, an Arya Samaji institution instead of Khalsa High School in Lahore.
In the year 1923, Singh joined the National College in Lahore. He participated in extra-curricular activities like the dramatics society during his college days. In the year 1923, he won an essay competition set by the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan. The topic of the essay was the problems in the Punjab.
Singh was an active and energetic young boy who was inspired by the Young Italy movement of Giuseppe Mazzini. As a result, he founded the Indian Nationalist Youth Organisation named Naujawan Bharat Sabha in the March 1926.
He also joined the Hindustan Republican Association, which already had influential leaders viz. Chandrashekhar Azad, Ram Prasad Bismil and Shahid Ashfaqallah Khan.
Also, a year later, to avoid an arranged marriage, Singh ran away from home to a place called Cawnpore. He left behind a letter that stated:
“My life has been dedicated to the noblest cause, that of the freedom of the country. Therefore, there is no rest or worldly desire that can lure me now.”
Due to his increasing popularity amongst youth, the police arrested him in May 1927 on the pretext that he had been involved in a bombing that had taken place in Lahore in October 1926.
But, five weeks later he was released on a surety of Rs. 60,000.
His other endeavours
Bhagat Singh was also involved in other activities that were indirectly related with the freedom struggle. He wrote and edited, Urdu and Punjabi newspapers, published in Amritsar. Also, he contributed to low-priced pamphlets that were published by Naujawan Bharat Sabha that excoriated the British.
Further, he also wrote for Kirti, the journal of the Kirti Kisan Party ("Workers and Peasants Party") and for Veer Arjun newspaper that was published in Delhi. He often did not reveal his true identity while writing and used pseudonyms, including names such as Balwant, Ranjit and Vidhrohi.
Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were sentenced to death in the Lahore conspiracy case and ordered to be hanged on 24 March 1931. Their scheduled execution was moved forward by 11 hours and the three were hanged on 23 March 1931 at 7:30 pm in the Lahore jail.
As per the records, no magistrate was willing to supervise Singh's hanging as was required by the law. Instead, the execution was supervised by an honorary judge, who also signed the three death warrants, as their original warrants had expired.
The jail authorities then broke a hole in the rear wall of the jail and removed the bodies. They further, secretly cremated the three men under cover of darkness outside Ganda Singh Wala village, and then threw the ashes into the Sutlej river, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Ferozepur.
His Memory and Commemoration
Bhagat Singh has always remained an revolutionary idol in the minds of Indians. Thus, to pay a tribute to this Indian Hero many efforts have been made by the Indian Film indusrty as well as theatrical societies.
Following are some of the efforts made by artists to commemorate Bhagat Singh
Some of the films made on the life of Bhagat Singh are:
•Shaheed-e-Azad Bhagat Singh (1954),
•Shaheed Bhagat Singh (1963), starring Shammi Kapoor as Bhagat Singh.
•Shaheed (1965) starring Manoj Kumar as Bhagat Singh
•In the year 2002, three films about Singh were released. But, unfortunately all of them were unsuccessful. These were
2)23 March 1931; Shaheed and
3)The Legend of Bhagat Singh.
•Rang De Basanti (2006) is a film that had portrayed Modern day youth taking inspirations from Bhagat Singh's era.
In the year 2008, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (NMML) and Act Now For Harmony and Democracy (ANHAD), a non-profit organisation, co-produced a 40-minute documentary on Bhagat Singh entitled Inqilab that was directed by Gauhar Raza
Singh and his companions in the Indian Freedom struggle; Sukhdev and Rajguru have always been the inspiration for a number of plays in India as well as in Pakistan.
Songs like "Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna" ("The desire to sacrifice") and "Mera Rang De Basanti Chola" ("O Mother! Dye my robe the colour of spring" created by Ram Prasad Bismil are largely associated with Singh's martyrdom. These songs have become famous Patriotric songs and are sung on every occasion of National Unity.
In His Honour
In the year 1968, a postage stamp was issued in India commemorating the 61st birth anniversary of Singh.
Also, rupee 5 coin was released for circulation in the year 2012 to commemorate this great Indian Hero.